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A ST. I.~Oii the Greographical Limits, History, and Chronology of the

Chera Kingdom of Ancient India. By Ma. J. Dowsok . . l

Akt. II. On the Rock-Cut Temples of India. By James Feboussok,

Esq. ........ 30

Ab.t. III. ^Notee on Indian Agriculture, as practised in the Western or Bombay Provinces of India. By Alexander Gibson, Esq., Superintendent of the Botanic Garden of Daporee . 93

AmT. IV. A Letter to Richard Clarke, Esq., Honorary Secretary to the Royal Asiatic Society, on the Oriental MSS. in the Library of EtonCoUege . . . . . . .104

Art. V. Abstract of a Discourse, by Dr. Falconer, on the Fossil

Fauna of the Sewalik Hills . . . . .107

Art. VI. On the Identification of the Mustard Tree of Scripture. By J. Forbes Rotle, M.D., F.R.S., L.8., and G.S., &c.. Professor of Materia Mediea and Therapeutics, King's College, London . 113

Art. VII. Summary of the Geology of Southern India. By Captain

Newbold, F.R.S., &c., Assistant Commissioner for Kumool . 138

Art. VIIL^A {&k Observations on the Temple of Somnath. By Cap- tain Postans . . . . .172

Art. IX. Report on some of the Rights, Privileges, and Usages of the HiU Population in Meywar. By Captain W. Hunter, of the Meywar Bhil Qorp^ . . . . 17(;

Art. X.— On the Hyssop of Scripture. By J. Forbes Rotle, M.D., F.R.S., L.S., and G.S., &c.» Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, King's College, London . . .193

Art. XI. Summary of the Geology of Southern India. By Captain

Newbold, F.R.8., &c.. Assistant Commissioner for Kumool .213

Art. XII.* The Chenchwars; a wild Tribe, inhabiting the Forests of the Eastern Ghauts. By Captain Newbold, F,R.S., &c.. Assistant Commissioner for Kumool. . . 27 1

Art. Xin. Account of Aden. By J. P. Malcolmson, Esq., Civil and

Staff Surgeon ....... 2'iit

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Art. XIV. Narrative of an Excursion from Peshdwer to Sh£h-Biz

Ghari. By C. Masson, Esq. . . . .293

Art. XV. On the Kapur-di-Giri Rock Inscription. By Mr. E. Norris 301 Note by the Director ...... 308

Geology of Southern India . . .316

Art. XVI. ^Analysis of the Granesa Purina, with epecial reference to

the History of Buddhism. By the Rev. Dr. Stevensov . 319

Art. XVJI. The Ante-Brahmanical Religion of the Hindus. By the

Rev. Dr. Stevenson .... . . 330

Art. XVIII.^Memorandum on certain Fossils, more particularly a new Ruminant found at the Island of Perim, in the Grulf of Cambay. By At.remarle Bettington, Esq., of the Bombay Civil Service, F.G.S., M.R.A.S. . . . .340

Art. XIX. ^Extract from a Letter addressed by Professor Wester- gaard to the Rev. Dr. Wilson, in the year 1843, relative to the Gabrs in Persia ....... 349

Art. XX.— Visit to the Bitter Lakes, Isthmus of Suez, by the bed of the ancient Canal of Nechos, the ^ Khalij al Eadim" of the Arabs, in June, 1842. By Cap* ain Newbold, F.R.S. . . .365

Art. XXI. On the Secret Triad Society of China, chiefly from Papers belonging to the Society found at Hong Kong. By the Rev. C. GUTZLAFF .... . .361

Art. XXII. The Cinnamon Trade of Ceylon, its Progress and Present

State. By Jobn Capper, Escl ..... 308

Art. XXII L— Reports on the Manchur Lake, and Aral and Narra Rivers. By Captain Postans, and R. G. Knioht^ Esq*, com- municated by Captain Postans .... 381

Art. XXIV.—On the traces of Feudalism in India^ and the condition of Itfinds now in a comparative state of Agricultnnd Infancy. By the late Augustus Prinsep, Esq. .... 390

Art. XXV.— Extracts from a Report on Chota 'Nagpore. By S. T.

Cuthbert, Esq., Magistrate, Ramghur . . .407

Notes on the Perim Fossil. By Professor Owen . . . 417

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Part I.


Art I. On the Greographical Limits, History, and Chronology of the

Chera Kingdom of Ancient India. By Mr. J. Dowson . 1

Art. II. On the Rock-Cut Temples of India. By James Fer-

oussoN, Esq. ....... 30

Art. III. Notes on Indian Agriculture, as practised in the Western or Bombay Provinces of India. By Alexander Gibson, Esq., Superintendent of the Botanic Garden at Dapoi-ee . . 93

Art. IV. A Letter to Richard Clarke, K<«q., Honorary Secretary to the Royal Asiatic Society, on the Oriental MSS. in the Library of Eton College . . . . . .104

Art. V. Abstract* of a Discourse, by Dr. Falconer, on the Fossil

Fauna of the Sewalik Hills. . . .107

Proceedings of the Twenty-first Annitersart Mbbtino. Ltrt of Mrmdbrs of the Royal Asiatic Society.

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Art. I, On the Geographical Limits^ History^ and Chronology of the Chera Kingdom of Ancient India, by Mr. J. Dowson.

Tradition and native records represent the southern portion of the Indian peninsula as being anciently divided into three contemporary kingdoms. 1. The Pandya. 2. Chola or Sora. 3. Chera, Sera or Konga. Of the first, a valuable account has been supplied by Professor Wilson, in Vol. III. of the Society's Journal ; and of the other two, slight sketches have been given by the same learned writer, in the Introduction to his Catalogue of the M'Kenzie Collection: a more detailed notice of the last is the object of this paper.

The notices of this kingdom which have been published, have been <lrawn chiefly from a Tamil memoir, in the M^Kenzie Collection, called " Konga desa Charitra," or " Konga desa R&jakkal," of which a trans- lation exists in the Library at the Eajst India House; it has been noticed, in Professor Wilson's Catalogue, at p. 199, Vol. L, and in page 1 of the Rev. W. Taylor's Analysis of that Collection.

This Memoir gives the history of the Chera dynasty, of those Chola monarchs who held the country of Chera by conquest, and also of the Hoyis&la or Bellala and the Vijayanagara dynasties, into whose power it successively fell. It is the only paper in the collection from which any useful notices of the Chera monarchs can be obtained, and the liistory of that dynasty rests at present mainly upon it. In style it is stated to be very different from the generality of Hindu writings of this class, and independently of its being our only authority, it merits a fuller notice than has yet been given of it. From the before-men- tioned translation, the following Abstract of the first portion which relates to the Chera dynasty and its Chola conquerors, has been pre- pared, in which all important and useful information on that subject has been retained; the parts relating to the Bellala and Vijayanagara kings will be useful in any future accounts of those dynasties, but are unnecessary for our present purpose.


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The Rev. W. Taylor speaks of this memoir in high terms of com- mendation : he made a translation of the whole of it, which he intended for insertion in the "Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society;" it has however never appeared. In his Analysis of the M'Kenize Collection, he says it "is for the most part free from the mythological fable which usually disfigures Hindu documents, and is well supported by dates, in general referred to inscriptions which are mentioned, and many grants of land are specified with such reference. On the whole this is one of the best, and most valuable manuscripts in the collection." In quali- fication of this praise however, it must be observed that, the accounts it gives of the Hoyisala and Vijayanagara kingdoms differ in some instances from others, particularly in reducing the number of kings ; and that implicit credence cannot be given to the dates in the first Part, will be seen from the observations which follow the Abstract; those of the second and third Parts appear to be tolerably correct.

The translation of this document in the volume of MSS. at the India House, is preceded by an introductory note, and an analysis of the first part relating to the Chera desa ; to these no name is attached, but they are evidently the work of an European. The introductory matter supplies some valuable geographical information, which has been incorporated into the following observations upon that subject.

We will now give the abstract of the memoir, reserving further comment for the inquiry which will follow it.

1. The first king, named Sri Vira Rdja Chakravarti, was bom in the city of Skandapura^ and was of the Reddy ' or Ratta tribe (culani)) and of the S(!irya vamsa (solar race) ; he obtained the government of the country and ruled with justice and equity.

2. Govinda Raya, son of Vira R&ja, was the next king.

3. Krishna Raya, son of Govinda Raya, ruled next.

4. Kala VaUabha Raya, son of Krishna Raya, was next in succession. Of these kings nothing more than their equity, justice, and renown

is recorded.

5. Govinda B,ky% son of Kala Vallabha, was the fifth in succes- sion; he conquered the hostile rajas, exacted tribute from them, and ruled his country with justice and renown. This king made a grant of land to a Jaina Brahman, named Arist^an, for the performance of worship in the Jaina basti (temple) of Kongani Varma, in Vaisakha, A. Sil. 4, ^year of the cycle, Subhanu (a.d. 82).

6. Ghaturbhtija Kanara Deva Chakravarti succeeded; he was of the

1 A Telugu tribe. See Ellis's Minsi Right, p. xiL

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same race, but his parentage is not mentioned. He is stated to have had four hands'; he waa versed in the art of archery and various sciences, and ruled with equity and renown, "obtaining the honorary insignia of all the other rdjaa.*'

A jaina named Naga Nandi, a learned and venerable man, was minister to the three last named rajas.

7. Tirn Vikrama Deva Chakravarti L, son of GhaturbhtSja Kanara, snooeeded, and was installed in A. Sal. 100 (a.d. 178), at Skanda- pnra. The celebrated Sankaracharya (called in the MSS. Sankara Deva) came to this king and converted him from the Jaina to the Saiva faith. After his conversion he marched into the southern country and conquered the Chola, P&ndya, Kerala, and Malay&lma countries, afi»r which he returned. He made many grants in charity and in encouragement of the learned; a deed of grant, dated Vais^ha-sud A. Sal. 100, ^year of the cycle, Sidharthi (a.d. 178), to Narasimha Bhatt, Guru, of the Bharadwaja gotra, is stated to be in the temple of Sankara Deva, at Skandapura. This king governed the Kam&ta as well as the Konga desa

8. Kongani Varma Raya succeeded; he was of the Konavar or Konvayan tribe and Ganga kula, and was installed at Vijaya Skanda- pura in A. Sal. Ill, year of the cycle, Pramoduta (a.d. 188), and reigned for fifty-one years; he exacted tribute from many rdjas whom he conquered, and " by his munificence and charity cleared away the sins of his predecessors of the Ganga race;'* his title was Srimat Sampati Kongani Varma Dharma Mahddhi R&ya.

9. Srimat M^uihava Mahadhi R&ya, son of Kongani Varma, suc- ceeded, and was installed in the government of the Konga desa, at Skandapura; he was learned in all the sciences and maxims of justice, ruled with equity, and was renowned for his munificence to the learned and the poor.

10. Srimat Hari Varma Mahddhi R4ya^ son of Madhava Rdya, suc- oeeded; he was installed at Skandapura, but '^ resided in the great city of Dah&vanpnra, in the Kamdta desa.'* He exacted tribute from many different r&jas, and was renowned ajs an eminent hero among all kings; he ruled according to the maxims of polity, and being very wealthy made many grants of land, one of which is recited, viz., a grant of land in Tagat6r, a petta (suburb) of Talakad to the Brahmans for the worship of JVKilasthin Iswara in that place, dated Panguni, A. Sal. 210, ^year of the cycle, Saumya (a.d. 288).

* The writer of the MSS. has evidently understood the title Chatur-bh{^, **(imr anned,** as having a personal and literal reference to this prince; it is how- ever a tiiie of Vishnu, which is frequently aaeumed by his followers.

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11. Vishnu Gopa Mahadhi Raja, son of Hari Varma, succeeded, and was installed at T^lakdd or Dalavanpura; he conquered the Purva-dik (eastern country) and was renowned as a great warrior; he made many grants to Brahmans and to the poor, and being a zealous votary of Vishnu, erected many temples to that deity ; hence he derived his name of " Vishnu Gopa." " The Konga and Kam^ta desas were both under his command :" having no children he adopted a lad of his own race, named him M&dhava, and resigned the crown to him.

12. Mddhava Mahadhi R&ya, adopted son of Vishnu Gopa, was installed at Dalavanpura, and ruled for some time under the orders of his father; but a son being bom to Vishnu Gopa, that son was installed in the government.

13. Krishna Varma Mah&dhi Biya, son of Vishnu Gopa, was installed at Dalavanpura, and on that occasion he granted some " countries near the Kanavdi and the mountains to his adoptive brother, M^Mlhava Mahadhi R^ya, who had lately ruled;"* he governed the kingdom equitably; he was a zealous votary of Siva, and having set up a Linga at Dalavanpura granted some lands for its support : he had no son.

14. Dindikdra Raya, son of Kul&ti R&ya, of the family of Vishnu Gopa's adopted son M&dhava, ruled for some time, but was deposed by

he Mantri Sen&pati of the late r&ja, who installed

15. Srimat Kongani Mahadhi Raya^ son of Krishna Varma's younger sister, in A. Sal. 288, ^year of the cycle, Parabhava (a.d. 366). This prince was learned in sciences and in languages, ''he conquered all the desas and took tribute from their rdjas," and granted many charities. A person named Yirachandra Dindik^Lra Raya, who had some desas under his charge during the reign of this king, made a grant of the village of Parola-kan(ir near Al(ir gr£ma.

16. Durvaniti Raya^ son of Kongani Raya IL, succeeded and ruled the Konga and Kam&ta desas. This prince is represented to have been deeply versed in magic and the use of mantrams ; by repeating the mystical word cm when his enemies were drawn up against him, they were enervated and dispirited, so that he obtained easy victories over them. He conquered the countries of Kerala, Pandya, Chola, Dr&vida^ Andhra, and Kalinga, and exacted tribute from the rajas thereof ; ail hostile kings were afraid of him, and hence he was called Doony Veeroota R£ya (Dharma virodhi, or Punya virota) the unjust Riiya.

17. Mdshakira R4ya, son of Durvaniti, succeeded, he was learned in the military art, and took tribute from those r^jas whom his father had conquered, keeping them in subjection and fear. He resumed the

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grants which had been made to the Brahmans and the poor; and hence he obtamed the title of Brahmahatya Rdja.

18. Tini Vikiama II., son of Muahakara, succeeded; he was a learned man and well versed in the science of government; ^'he obtained possession of all the desas/' and ruled them with justice.

19. Bhd Vikrama lUja, son of Tiru Vikrama succeeded, and was installed in A. Sdl. 461, ^year of the cycle, Sidharthi (a,d. 539). He ruled the two countries of Konga and Karnata, and conquered many other countries. From the great number of elephants which he pro- cured, the title of Gajapati was given to him; he had several weapons made of ivory which he kept by him as trophies of victory. He maintained all the charitable and religious grants which had been made by his ancestors in the countries which they had conquered, as well as in the Chera and Kam^ta countries.

20. Kongani Mahddhi Raya III., succeeded his father Bhli Vik- rama, and governed the countries with justice and equity. He made his brother commander of his armies, and several rajas having refused to pay tribute, he collected his armies and conquered the Chola, Pand3ra, Dravida, Andhra, Kalinga, Varada, and Mahadushtra desas, as far as the Nerbadda river, and took tribute from them; he then returned to his capital, Dalavanpura, which he strongly fortified, and made many benefactions. The title of Bhd Vikrama Aaya was taken by him. He acted in these campaigns, and in the government of the country, nnder the advice of his youngest brother Vallavagi R&ya.

21. Raja Govinda Raya succeeded his father, and ruled the country with equity and renown, subduing all the hostile rajas. He waB '' esteemed a most pure person in the Gangakula," and from his attach- ment to the Ling&dh&ri sect, was called Nandi Varma. This prince resided for some time at the city of Muganda-pattana.

22. Sivaga Mahd Raya, brother of Govinda Raya, succeeded; he was installed at Dalavanpura, but resided for some time at Muganda- pattana, ruling the kingdom justly. In A. S6l. 591, ^year of the cycle, Pramodiita (a.d. 668), he made a grant of the village called Halihalli to a learned Brahman of Drdvida desa.

23. Prithivi Kongani Mahadhi Mya, grandson (son's son) of Sivaga, succeeded ; his commander-in-chief, Purusha Raya, conquered the hostile rdjas, and the king conferred upon him a grant of twelve villages near Skandapdra^ and the title of Chavurya Parama Narendra Senadhipati, in Chaitra, A. Sal. 668, ^year of the cycle, Parthiva (a.d. 746). This king ruled the country in felicity, and was known by the title Siva Mahd-rSja.

24. Raja Malla Deva I., son of Vijayaditya Raya, younger brother of

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Prithivi Kongani UkjA, succeeded, and ruled the Konga and Karn&ta desas. This prince always dressed with magnificence and elegance. He is recorded to have made a grant to his Senadipati " of twelve villages belonging to Vijaya Skandapura, situated above the Kanavdi, along with Vijaya Skandapura." The mantris of his tribe, the nobi- lity, and the Mallik^una Swfimf, were declared witnesses to the grant.

25. Ganda deva Mah&-rd,ya, son of Malla-deva^ succeeded; he was a powerful prince, and obtained the different insignia of all the rajas. He fought with the Dravida Raja in Kdnchi desa, defeated him and exacted tribute from the country ; he fought also with the Chola Raja, " into whom he carried terror, and afterwards established amity with him." He maintained a friendship with the P&ndya Raja, and was renowned among the Gangarkula for protecting the kingdom.

26. Satya Vakya Raya succeeded his father Ganda deva, and ruled the kingdom in equity and justice, punishing the wicked and protecting the good. He waa never failing in truth, hence he obtained the title of Satya Vakya Raya (the truth-speaking king).

27. Gunottama Deva, brother of Satya Vakya, was installed at Dalavanpura ; he ruled the kingdom in an equitable manner, allowing many charities, and maintained friendship with the other rdjas.

28. Malla Deva R&ya II., younger brother of Gunottama, succeeded during the life-time of the latter, whom he is stated to have kept at Vijaya Skandapura. This king was a very valiant man and defeated the Pdndya Raja, who had attacked him.

In the reign of this prince, his brother Gunottama made a grant of land in Ani, A. Sal. 800, ^year of the cycle, Vikari (a.d. 878), to a Jaina, for the performance of worship to a Jaina deity.

On the 7th Vais^ha sud, A. Sal. 816, ^year of the cycle, Ananda (a.d. 894), a person named Tiruinalayan, built a temple, and to the west of it erected an image of Vishnu, which he called Tirumala Deva, upon some land " in the midst of the Cdvery," where in former times the western Ranganad Swdmi had been worshipped by Gautama Rishi; but which was then entirely overrun with jungle. This place he called Sri Ranga pattana (Seringapatam).

Chola Conquest.

20. V^ijaya Raya Aditya Varma, son of Vijayada' Raya, who had been installed at Tanjore as King of the Chola-desa, came into the Chera-desa, conquered the " Vedar*" Rajas thereof, reduced the capital

' Tlie introductory note calls him "Virata." ' A tribe of hunters, said to be the aborigines of the peninsula.

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Talakad, and governed the country. He made many charitable grants in Chera.

30. Vira Chola* R&ya, eon of Aditya Vanna, was installed at Tanjore, and became King of the Chera and Kamdta desas. He was a rery valiant man and conquered many desas ; hence he obtained the title Vira (hero), and from being a zealous follower of Vishnu he was called N&r&yana; thus, Vira Chola N^yana. ''He and the P4ndya Raja both conquered many desas; he went to Sinhala desa and con- quered the raja thereof, thereby obtaining great fame.'* He granted many agrah^rams in free gift to Brahmans; one situated on the banks of the C^v^ry in Cholardesa, was named Vira N4r&yanapur. He one day saw on the sea-shore the Sabh&pati of Ohillambara (Siva), attended by Parvati, dancing and beating the damaraka (a kind of drum) ; he therefore expended great sums of money in building the Kanaka or golden Sabha. Having many sons, he appointed D^oditya JRaya to be King of the Chola-desa, and Arunjeya R&ya to the Drdvida desa, and died.

31 . Ddsoditya Raya wa^ installed at Tanjore, and then performed the installation of his elder brother, Arunjeya R&ya, as King of the Drdvida desa. He ruled the Chera country in an equitable and charit- able manner; he granted four agrahdrams on the C6v6iy, and named them Chatur samudram ; he died childless.

32. Parandaka R4ya, son of Ddsoditya's brother Arunjeya, con- quered the Pandya raja and took tribute from him. He married a virgin named Chittiri, daughter of Chati Raya; by her he had a son, who having conquered many enemies, waj3 called Arimalli; he died before his father, who by the same wife had many other sons. This king granted many agrah^rams, and other charities.

33. Divya R&ya, son of Parandaka, succeeded, and ruled the DtA- vida, Chera, and Kam&ta desas. He was alarmed by Vira P^dya, who came to Tanjore to fight, but defeated him and cut off his ears, upon which the Pandya Raja returned to Madura; from this feat he was called Arititu Raya. He then went to conquer the Uttara desa (northern country), leaving his mantri in charge of the public affairs at Tanjore, but remaining absent a long time, quarrels arose between his relations and the mantri, whose authority was unheeded; upon hearing of which, he returned and restored tranquillity, and punished those who had rebelled. After this he conquered Satya K^ak^, of the Vaitonda vanisa, and despoiled him of a great quantity of precious stones, which

> A note in the MSS. stateK) that ''accordiDg to the Condatoor MSS. he reigned from Saliviihaiia 849 to «^ (a.d. 927 to 977)."

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he gave to the Brahmans in cbarity, in order to obtain the favour of Narayana. He caused many canals on the Cdv6ry to be dug, and made many charitable grants ; he had no sons, he therefore installed his younger brother, Ari Vari Dera.

34. Ari Vari Deva, brother of Divya Rdya, ruled the desaa of Chola, Drdvida, Konga, and Kamdta. His brother, Divya Raya, marched with an army to Madura, defeated the Ptodya Raja, and forced him to take flight: he then reduced the Pandyardesa, and having plundered Virenjipuram ^ returned to Tanjore. The mother of the defeated and fugitive P^ndya Raja, being a near relative to the Chola Raja, the latter, after having received large quantities of jewels and money, restored Madura to the Pandya king, and lived afterwards in amity with him. " The Senddhipati (commander) of the Pandya Raja, who was a near relation, came to the Chola Raja;" his name was Amra Bhojangan, and the king being pleased with him gave him the command of an army, with which he marched as far as Saha parvata to the west, and from thence into the Kerala desa, the raja of which attempted to defend the country, but Amra conquered the Kollur, Indra-giri, and Nila-giri countries; "and that raja having lost every- thing, and being defenceless, embarked on ship, and fled to the islands in the midst of the ocean." By command of his master, he buried all the treasures, jewels, and whatever he had plundered, in the Kanav&i sthala of Siva; Bhima BAys>, having heard of these events, attacked him, but was defeated, and lost his son. Amra then marched into the Kallnga desa, and took tribute from the rdja, and proceeded from thence to the Narmada river, where he conquered many rajas ; having subdued Vaitonda R^ya, K&maranava R&ya, Dana Pallia Bhima Raya, and Am&n R&ya, and taken from them money, jewels, the ladies of their palaces and tribute, he returned to the raja, bringing among the plunder the golden statue of Bhima Raya, having planted the " vic- torious tiger-standard" in the Pushkama-dik (western country), on the Narmada river and on Mahendra-giri. The raja was highly pleased on seeing the treasures, and observing that his grandfather had built only a Kanaka Sabh^ to the Chillambara deity (Siva) ; he built Gopuras (spires, towers), Maddals, (inclosures), Mandapams (image-houses), and Sabh^ (holy places or apartments), and granted many jewels to the deity. He resided at Tanjore, and ruled both the Konga and Kamdta desas, making numerous grants of land and other donations. He made a grant of the village of Kiriyur, in TdlakM, to the north of the Chera desa, in agrahdram to the Brahmans of Tdlakad, placing Vaisyas

1 There is a place of this name in the Drilvida desa; it is situated a little to the west of Vellore.

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in cluurge of it, and called it R^ja-r^ja-pura. He thus made many grants on the 5th Mdgha and, A. 6al. 926, ^year of the cycle, Viswav^sn (a.d. 1004).

The notice of the Chola djniasty here ends abruptly, and the MS. proceeds to the history of the Belldla rulers.

The first point of inquiry which presents itself is that which relates to the Geography of the Chera Kingdom ; its boundaries, the situation of its capitals, and the locality of the several desas and cities, which are mentioned in the preceding paper; referring more particularly to countries which were under the Chera rule.

The boundaries and extent of Chera, as defined by Tamil classic writers, are given in the second volume of the Rev. W. Taylor's Trans- lations of Historical MSS.^ in the following words:

Stanza supposed to be by Avyar. " The northernmost place is Pazhani (Pjniey), the most eastern is Chengodu (Trichengode), the most western is Kozhikudu, on the south is the shore of the sea ; in all eighty kadams (eight hundred miles), is called the boundary of the Sera country.''

Stanza by Avyar. " The northernmost place is Pazhani, to the south is the southern Kasi, to the west is Kolikudu, the sea-shore on the south is called the boundary of the Chera kingdom."


"On the north Pazhani, to the east the great town (or Penir), on the south the sea, on the west the great mountain; from east to west forty kadams (four hundred miles), from south to north forty kadams (fonr hundred mUes), making together eighty kadams (eight hundred miles). Its revenue ten miUions of pattans, of which four make a kali pan."

To these may be added, that quoted by Professor Wilson, in his Catalogue of the M'Kenzie Collection*.

Tamil verse.

" The Palini river on the north, Tencasi in Tinnavelly on the east, Malabar on the west, and the sea on the south."

Professor Wilson, in the Introduction to the Catalogue of the M'Kenzie Collection, founding his description chiefiy on the last verse,

> Tay]or*0 MSS. App. vol. ii. p. 26. Wilson^s M<Kenzie Cat. i. 198.

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says, '' The northern limits of Cfaera varied at different periods, being originally placed aft Palini near Dhardpora, whilst at a subsequent period the capital, Dalavanpura or Tdlak&d, above the Mysore Gh^ts, indicates a considerable extension of the boundary in that quarter, and the Ghera principality probably included the greater portion of Kar- n^ta. Its eastern limits were the possessions of Chola and Pdndya, and the western those of Kerala. In its early state, however, it com- prehended the extreme south of the Malabar coast or Travancore, and consisted of that province, Wyndd, the Nilgiri mountain district, the southern portion of Coimbetore, and part of Tinnevelly. In this tract, we have in Ptolemy the people called Caret, and not far from it, Carura Begia Cerebothri, in which, making an allowance for inac- curacies of sound and expression, we have the Cheras, and Gdrdr still a city in this district, and Cherapati the sovereign of Chera \**

The foregoing memorial verses are upon the whole tolerably con- current ; all four make the sea to be the southern boundary, and Calicut (Kozhikudu) or Malabar the western. The first makes Trichengode in Salem, and the last Tenkdsi, or the southern Kdsi, in Tinnevelly, to be the eastern boundary; the second verse makes two southern bound- aries (the sea and Tenk^i), omitting entirely the eastern, we may therefore reasonably include that Tenkdsi is intended for the eajstem ; the third verse gives " Per6r" as on the frontier, but as that term means simply " great town," it cannot be definitely applied. Trichen- gode and Tenk^si are at a great distance from each other, but each might be considered as an eastern boundary, one being situated towards the northern extremity of ^the kingdom, the other toward the southern ; a line drawn from one to the other might therefore be considered the eastern frontier : such a line would pass a little to the west of Cdrur, mentioned by Ptolemy as included in the Ghera desa; and this town was, as Golonel Wilks informs us, so near the frontier, that it was alternately in the possession of the Chera, Chola, and Pdndya sove- reigns'. The northern frontier cannot be so easily settled; the first three verses give Pazhani as the boundary; the fourth, however, says the Palini river (the same name but a different orthography) ; the Paz- hani of the first three verses has been considered to be the town of that name, variously spelt Palini, Pulney, and Pyney ; this town is situated in the south of Coimbetore below Dhardpura, whereas, Calicut and Trichengode are both far to the northward; the Cdr6r of Ptolemy is also north of it. This town then could not have been the northern boundary; the Palini river of the fourth verse may help us in dis-

' Wilson's M'Kenzio Cnt. Int. p. 92. ' Wilkfi*8 Sketches of Myiore HiBtory, i. p. 8.

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coyering the oonect frontier. After diligent search no river of this n&me has been found ; but yarious circumstances lead to the belief that the riyer Bhowanj^ which running eastward, falls into the Cdvery at Bhowany kudal, or as it is sometimes written Boviny Coral, a little aboye Erode, is intended.

The words in the lines quoted from the Tamil poetess Ayjdr, as giyen bj Mr. Taylor, are, Vadakku-talam Pazhani, t. e,, north the sthalam Pazhani. A sthalam is a holy place, a place where a temple 18 erected in honor of some deity; now we haye only to suppose an easy clerical error of one letter to haye crept into the yerse, and we shall remoye the only obstacle to the tracing of a consistent line of boundary from the accordant testimony of the authorities referred to. If we substitute t? for zh in the word Pazhani we haye Bhayani, (for the same symbol in the imperfect alphabet of the Tamil ex- presses p and b and their respectiye aspirates,) and Bhayani would be a legitimate feminine form of Bhavan, signifying the wife of Bhayan or Siya, the goddess P&ryati, who has giyen name to the sthalt^ still known as Bhowany. Whether this conjecture be right or not, it appears highly probable that the riyer Bhowany was near the northern frontier, which must in all probability haye been nearly the same as that between the British district of Coimbetore and Salem and the ter- ritories of the Mysore Raja, as the following observations will show.

1. A line drawn from Calicut on the Malabar Coast to Trichengode in Salem, these places being respectiyely mentioned in the Tamil yerses as the western and eastern boundaries, would pass in the imme- diate yicinity of the Bhowany riyer.

2. The introductory note to our MSS. informs us, that Skandapura, the capital of the Chera kingdom, was situated a short distance west of the Guzzelhatty Pass; no direct confirmation of the locality here assigned to Skandapura has been met with ; it appears, howeyer, to be verified by our MSS., which says that Tiru Vikrama (No. 7), marched southward to Chola desa, and it may therefore be admitted as correct. The situation thus given to Skandupura, and the fact of Tiru Vikrama marching southward to Chola, render it necessary to place the frontier as Celt north as the boundary proposed.

3. Mr. Buchanan, in the Narrative of his Mysore Journey, makes a few incidental observations which also confirm it; he mentions Sanklidrug, a little to the north of Trichengode in Salem, Satiman> gal% near Danaikancotta in Coimbetore, and Nidi Cdvil, about forty miles N.N.W. of Sanklidrug, as included in the Chera desa, Nidi Cavil being aa he states, upon the frontier between Chera and Karn^ta' ;

' BuchaoaD*8 Mysore Journey, vol. ii., p. XH'A, 1»5, 237 and 248.

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he further mentions Coleagala and Arootdr (the former of which is situated a short distance in the Mysore territories^ and the latter, on the borders of Goimbetore,) as being towards the southern extremit j of Kam&ta*.

Concluding then upon the foregoing grounds, that the northern boundary must have been nearly the same as that of the modem Coimbetore and part of Salem; the outlines of Ghera may be stated as follows :

To the north it had the country of Kamata, which it joined among the Ghats, nearly upon the present Mysore frontier : stretching from thence eastward it penetrated into the district of Salem as far as San- klidrug or Trichengode: from thence it proceeded southward (Chola and P^ndya being to the eastward, and the towns of G^riir in Goimbe- tore and Tenkasi in Tinnavelly near the frontier line,) to the coast of Travancore; and it included the western coast, as high up as Calicut in Malabar*.

The Malabar district cannot, although included in the Chera king- dom, be considered as part of the Ghera desa, for it was included in the ancient Kerala desa; the northern parts of Malabar above Calicut may be regarded as remnants of the ancient Kerala kingdom, which, together with the district of Wjnidd, did not fall under the sway of the Chera rajas before the conquest of Kam&ta, in which desa Wyn&d wa« included".

The boundaries thus assigned to Chera, are in accordance with the general description of that country usually given, as consisting of Coimbetore and Salem ^ To define, however, the boundaries of this or any other of these ancient kingdoms with exactitude is quite impos- siblcj as they were continually varying according to the strength, ability, and ambition of their respective rulers.

The seventh king in our MSS. is represented as "ruling the country together with the Kam&ta desa;" this was undoubtedly a conquest, but whether of his, or of his predecessors, we are not informed. This country is always mentioned in our MSS. as distinct from the Chera desa, although Dalavanpura or T^ak&d in Kamdta, became at a later period the capital of the extended kingdom.

> Bachanan*8 Mysore Journey,Vol. iL, p. 242.

* A list of titles of the Chera, Chola, and Pdndya sovereigns, (Wilson^a M'Kenzie Cat, vol. ii., p. cxxix., No. 24), gives the following among fourteen titles of the Chera Rajas. ^^ Malayaman,** Lord of Malaya : " Colly verpen,** Lord of the Colly mountain in Salem.

> Bachanan*s Journey, vol. ii., p. 484.

* Wilks*s Sketches, Ac, vol. i., p. 8.; Buchanan*s Journey, vol ii., p. 183, 185, and 304. ^ _ ^ _


The bonndariee of ancient Karndta are no better defined than those of Chera; it consisted of the central districts of the peninsula, including the Mysore territories of the present day. The ghdts present a good natural frontier, and for some distance on the east and west are recog- nised as its bounds ; the southern frontier appears to have joined the Chera dominions, and is therefore defined by the northern boundary of that kingdom. An inquiry into the position of the northern frontier of Kamdta is unnecessary for our present purpose, as it seems clear that the whole desa could never haye come under the rule of the Chera monarchs, for the Kadamba djaastj ruling at Banavdsi by the Varada river upon the frontier between the modem Mysore and Canara, and the Chalukya monarchs, whose capital was Kdlyan, and whose con- quests appear to have extended as far southward as Banavisi, were in existence before the extinction of the Chera rule, and must have occu- pied a considerable portion of the north and west of Kam&ta. Of the former race, Professor Wilson mentions inscriptions from a.d. 168 to 1336, throwing some doubt however upon the first date'. Mr. Walter Elliott fixes the era of one king of this line about a.d. 580 or 600 '. In reference to the latter or Chalukya djniasty, Mr. Elliot remarks, that proofs have been obtained of the possession of sovereign authority by the Chalukyas, from about the middle of the fifth century of -our era'.

The city of Dalavanpura or Tdlak&d, which under the tenth prince became the capital of the extended dominions of the Chera monarchs, was situated on the north bank of the Cdvery, about thirty miles east of Seringapatam, and immediately upon the frontiers of the present Mysore and Salem; its ruins are still known by the name of Tdlak&d. The introductory note to our MSS. informs us, that ^' it must have been a very splendid and extensive city, the C^very inclosing its forti- fications on three sides; it was called the southern Gayd; five or six celebrated temples are still standing, many inscriptions being visible on their walls." When Mr. Buchanan visited T&lakdd, he found only one temple which was dedicated to Siva, many others having been over- whelmed with sand, the tops of them alone remaining visible; an inscription upon the preserved temple he could not decipher\ Could these inscriptions have been procured, they would probably have thrown some valuable light either upon the Chera or Hoyisdla dynasties, Talak&d having been at successive periods the capital of each.

Mngandarpattana, at which the twenty-first and twenty-second

1 WilflK>ii*8 Catalogue of M'Kenzie's Collection, vol. L, Int. xcviii.

t Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, vol. iv., p.